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Sails, materials cost performance aliens

 
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U2U2U2



Joined: 06 Jul 2001
Posts: 4743
Location: Shipsterns Bluff, Tasmania. Colorado

PostPosted: Thu Jul 19, 2018 12:32 pm    Post subject: Sails, materials cost performance aliens Reply with quote

Sail materials, weight VS longevity VS performances VS cost.

There is no perfect solution since in most cases the increase of one attribute generally results in decreased attractiveness of another. AS Reduced stretch generally will reduces the flexibility causing a trade off of performance for durability. Solving both problems generally send the price out of range.

Key factors to evaluate:

Initial Modulus, the resistance of a material to recover deformation under load.

Breaking strength.

Creep. Long term stretch.

UV resistance.

Flex strength, loss due to bending, folding, flogging.

Cost effectiveness, so initial cost and durability over time.

The best material will vary widely, and between sail lofts, the materials arrangement/placement in the sail is dependent on how they react in each panel and in harmony with each panel. The most expensive or lightest or strongest is not necessarily the choice in all panels. The choices in production sails is for the sail designer to pick. More than on way to bake a cake, applies here. The material needs to be light flexible and stable.

Scrim and strands are narrow flat band or ribbons of high strength material used to strengthen and reinforce.

Laminated: multi materials, could be different to synergize the qualities of each.

Some materials used for sail: cotton a while back!

Nylon

Polyester PET , this is commonly referred to Dacron which is the trade name of DuPont. Type 52 DuPont is specifically sail cloth. Also called Terylene, Trevira, Diolen .

Pentax PEN , (mylar) modified polyester 250% less stretch than PET.

Kevlar types 29 and 49 used along with DuPont EDGE fairly new for sails. A Aramid.

Technora a aramid .

Twaron similar to Kevlar.

Spectra, modified polyethylene.

Dyneema . very strong again a polyethylene. UHMWPE.

I find that the more initial’s associated with, the performance an price skyrocket.

These below are commonly used in our sails.

Dacron, its too stretchy for most panels, more as it ages due to the resin breaking down, causes the yarn to shift. Is inexpensive and durable even with above. Not used as the primary medium in MOST sails. Measured on oz, where a 28.5” X 36” section is weighed, as 4.4 to 8.4 oz.

SL500P Ultra-light polyester scrim, , non-woven formed sheet of yarns held together with resin.Typical look is small white boxes.

Monofolm, MONO,clear , single layer of plastic , Mylar,comes in thickness, MILs 5 mil is .005”, its light strong ans stable. UV is its BIG enemy. Colored MONO are pliable and more UV resistant. Said to be faster ythan XPLY

XPly a clear polyester film with 2 layers glued together, with a criss- cross weave of strands, like Kevlar.

CMNX Clear polyester film, polyester scrim, white and black criss-cross threads.

SL1000P Light weight polyester , heavier than 500, all white box strands.

60P like 1000 but with black strands also

OD Technora scrim. Strands. 8 times stronger than steel Was used to suspend the Mars rover from its parachute during descent. Dark criss-cross with dark boxes. High priced with the next 2.

60LSP Light weight polyester scrim, PEN fiber strands , GOLD in color.$$$

45HMT High Modulus Twaron, a para aramid fiber, high dimensional stability. $$$
These Generally are in order of strength and price follows in line, higher.

Strongest man made are Spectra and Dynemma, developed for ligament replacement.

Some things that are considered for weight savings are , use of a grommet instead of a pulley for downhaul , various batten adjusters save weight , or none at all using a auto adjuster pull. Carbon battens, cost VS feel VS strength.

Some of my designators are EURO, both in name and manufacture.

The use of better ( a judgement of what’s better ) material in stress/load bearing panels can produce a stronger more durable light sail. Its very complicated .

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windward1



Joined: 18 Jun 2000
Posts: 1071

PostPosted: Thu Jul 19, 2018 1:01 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Hi U2U2U2,

Thanks for the gathering and presentation of all the information.

W1
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U2U2U2



Joined: 06 Jul 2001
Posts: 4743
Location: Shipsterns Bluff, Tasmania. Colorado

PostPosted: Thu Jul 19, 2018 8:23 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

READING the sail materials of different brands you will find some reference to some of these. Others will say , new breakthrough material , etc. This leaves much to the iminagation .
The weight difference on some is not dramatic, but the strength to weight ratio is. The adhesive , panel layout , stitching all play a part.

If economy were paramount , I would ask for XPly in the window, Technora at the clew and bottom grommet . Dacron behind the luff sleeve. Bottom panel a fairly new German product Glitter220, come in a variety of colors, better Than colored x ply, remainder would be 60LSP. A couple small panels in Technora, adhesive Dacron for batten pockets. Non carbon battens . No pulley on downhaul . This would prove a light very strong durable weapon. Screw in type batten adjusters , weight less than the flip out twist ones. Dacron in some of the panels could be trick, just not the stressed most ones, like the very top.

You might notice their is no sail lofts mentioned , not by accident .
Oh the strongest part of the sail would probably be the mast sleeve, aside from the Carbon, Kevlar high tech to NASA TEch scrim bits

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dllee



Joined: 03 Jul 2009
Posts: 3908
Location: East Bay

PostPosted: Thu Jul 19, 2018 10:54 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

All that hi tech does no good if the sailor flops the sail in the wind, crumples it when rolling it up, and leaves it in the water after multiple falls.
Make no noise when handling the sail.
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